4 Ekim 2014 Cumartesi



Um karateka dedicado deve conhecer as suas origens!

Qual é a linhagem da sua escola? JKA? SKIF? ASAI? JKS? Você está ou já esteve ligado a outra linhagem? Responda nos comentários!

Adanmış bir karateka kökeni bilmeniz gerekir.
Lineage okul nedir? JKA? SKIF? ASAI? JKS? Sen veya var şimdiye kadar yapılmış bağlı başka bir soy? Yorum cevap!(Bing tarafından çevrildi)


Japan Karate Association (JKA), and descendants

The Japan Karate Association (JKA; "Nihon Karate Kyokai" in Japan) was formed in 1949 by several of Gichin Funakoshi's senior students. The highest rank that Master Funakoshi awarded to his students was 5th Dan (5th degree black belt). JKA raised the highest rank from 5th Dan to 10th Dan with less strict requirements to obtain each rank. Takushoku University provided the most members initially, but Hosei, Waseda, Gakushuin, and Keio Universities also contributed members. Masatoshi Nakayama (1913–1987) led the JKA, with Gichin Funakoshi holding a position equivalent to Professor Emeritus. The JKA grew to be one of the biggest karate organizations in the world.[citation needed] Differences between senior instructors and administrators gave rise to several breakaway groups, with the JKA itself eventually dividing into two factions.[citation needed] Nobuyuki Nakahara, Ueki Masaaki, Tanaka Masahiko, Yoshiharu Osaka and others led one faction (Nakahara Faction), while Matsuno Raizo, Asai Tetsuhiko, Abe Keigo and Yahara Mikio led the other (Matsuno Faction). Following legal battles, the Nakahara group retained control of the JKA. The following sections describe some of the Shotokan organizations that descended from the JKA.[citation needed] The founders of these organizations are some of the most senior Shotokan instructors in the world.[citation needed]

International Traditional Karate Federation (ITKF)

Hidetaka Nishiyama (1928–2008) began his karate training in 1943 under Gichin Funakoshi.[1] Two years later, while enrolled at Takushoku University, he became a member of the university's karate team, and in 1949 its captain. He was a co-founder of the All Japan Collegiate Karate Federation and was elected as its first chairman. In 1951, Nishiyama became a founding member of the JKA, and was elected to the JKA Board of Directors. In 1952, he was selected as a member of the martial arts combat instruction staff for the US Strategic Air Command (SAC) Combat Training Program, which also included as instructors Funakoshi, Nakayama, and Isao Obata. Nishiyama came to the United States in 1961, on the invitation of SAC students and JKA members residing in the country, and four months later founded the American Amateur Karate Federation (AAKF),[2] as a branch of the JKA. In 1968, Nishiyama organized the first World Invitational Karate Tournament held in Los Angeles. Following disagreements over organization during the 1st (1970) and 2nd (1973) World Karate Championships, the International Amateur Karate Federation (IAKF) was formed in 1974, with Nishiyama as executive director.[3] In 1985, the IAKF changed its name to the International Traditional Karate Federation (ITKF). Nishiyama obtained the 10th dan in 2003 from the International San Ten Karate Association. He died on November 7, 2008. His former students include Hiroshi Shirai and Takeshi Oishi and James Yabe.

Shotokan Karate-Do International Federation (SKIF)

Hirokazu Kanazawa (1931–), 10th Dan, broke away from the JKA in 1978, and called his organization "Shotokan Karate-do International Federation" (SKIF). Kanazawa had studied under Masatoshi Nakayama and Hidetaka Nishiyama, both students of Gichin Funakoshi. SKIF introduced elements of T'ai chi ch'uan, particularly in the matter of flow and balance, and actively promoted the evolution of Shotokan while maintaining the traditional core of the art. Kanazawa is considered one of the most technically brilliant Shotokan exponents, and was a top contender in competition. Most notably, he won the kumite championship at the first JKA Open Tournament (1957) with a broken hand. Kanazawa was awarded 10th Dan in 2000.

International Shotokan Karate Federation (ISKF)

Teruyuki Okazaki (1931–), 10th dan, leads the International Shotokan Karate Federation (ISKF), which is the largest Shotokan karate organization in North America South America and the Caribbean. Okazaki studied under Gichin Funakoshi and Masatoshi Nakayama, and was integral in the founding of the JKA Instructor Trainee program. As part of an effort by Nakayama to spread Shotokan karate internationally, Okazaki came to the USA in 1961. Okazaki founded the ISKF in 1977 and it was part of the JKA until June 2007.

Japan Karate Association / World Federation America (USA Official Branch of the JKA - World Federation)

Shojiro Koyama (1935–), 8th dan

Japan Karate Shotorenmei (JKS)

Tetsuhiko Asai (1935–2006), 10th dan, often practiced Sumo, Judo, Kendo, and the Spear in his youth. Asai studied at the Takushoku University in Tokyo, where he also studied Shotokan karate. He joined the instructors' program and became a JKA instructor. In later years, Asai instructed in China, Hong Kong, America, Europe, and Hawaii (where he led the Hawaiian Karate Association). Asai was made Chief Instructor of the JKA after Masatoshi Nakayama's death in 1987; however, he—along with a number of other senior JKA instructors—opposed the appointment of Nakahara as Chairman, and so formed a separate JKA (Matsuno Section). Following a lengthy legal battle, the Nakahara group won the rights to the JKA title and Asai's group adopted the name of the Japan Karate Shotorenmei (JKS).

Japan Shotokan Karate Association (JSKA)

Keigo Abe (1938–), as a student at the JKA Honbu, learned directly from Nakayama, which is reflected in his deference to Nakayama as being his only headmaster. Abe was a former senior instructor at the JKA Honbu, having graduated from the instructors' program. He held the office of Director of Qualifications in the original, pre-split JKA. However after the split in 1990, he became the Technical Director of the JKA (Matsuno Section), during some of the association's most turbulent years. In his youth, Abe took 3rd place in the very first JKA National Championships; was the captain of the Japanese team at the second World Championships in Paris, France; won 1st place at the JKA International Friendship Tournament (1973); and took 1st place in the second and third JKF National Championships as a representative of Tokyo. Renowned for his strong traditional approach to Shotokan karate, he retired from the JKA in 1999 to form his own international organisation—the Japan Shotokan Karate Association (JSKA).[4] Abe is reputed as being responsible for formulating the Shobu Ippon tournament rules, which are used by most Shotokan stylists today. However, there is a school of thought that these rules were actually formulated by Hidetaki Nishiyama during his time at the JKA. Abe is supported in the JSKA by Makoto Matsunami 8th dan, who runs his own independent dojo in Japan, as Technical Director and Takashi Naito 6th dan, as Director of Administration. Keigo Abe was awarded 9th dan in 2008 by the JSKA Shihankai.

Karatenomichi World Federation (KWF)

Mikio Yahara (1947–), 8th dan, is Chief Instructor of the Karatenomichi World Federation (KWF). Yahara graduated from Kokushikan University and became a JKA instructor during that organization's zenith in the 1970s and 1980s. In over a decade of competition, Yahara distinguished himself as a predatory fighter, monopolizing the high ranks of domestic and international championships. As a Kata World Cup Champion, he is probably most famous for his performance of the Unsu and Empi kata. He is known for single-handly defeating 34 local gangsters (yakuza), facing down a gangster with a gun, and turning up for a competition with a knife wound.[5] When Tetsuhiko Asai, Keigo Abe, Yahara, Akihito Isaka and other leading JKA Karateka formed the Matsuno Section of the JKA, Yahara became Assistant Chief Instructor. In 2000, Yahara formed the Karatenomichi World Federation with Isaka and which is represented in over 40 countries. Yahara fractured three of his opponent's ribs during his 8th dan promotion kumite in July 2006. The KWF claims that no other senior karate instructor has ever submitted himself to real kumite, in front of juniors and in front of the camera, for his 8th dan. In April 2007, Yahara and Japanese industrial loan magnate Kenshin Oshima, who is also a personal pupil of Yahara officially opened the ShotoKan, ¥1 billion private members' dojo donated to the KWF by Oshima.

World Shotokan Karate-Do Federation (WSKF)

The World Shotokan Karate-Do Federation (W.S.K.F) has members in 75 countries. It was founded in 1990 by Hitoshi Kasuya Sensei (8. Dan) and Takeaki Kamiyanagi Sensei (9. Dan) and is a global organisation with an experienced chief instructor.
Kasuya Sensei finished the JKA (Japan Karate Association) instructor course in 1973. He was a student of Nakayama Sensei, who had an important impact on him because of his scientific approach to karate and his ability to challenge his students.
Kasuya Sensei was a member of Japan's national team until 1982, participating first in IAKF and then in WUKO (World Union of Karate-do Organizations) world championships. In 1983 and 1985 he became SKIF (Shotokan Karate-Do International Federation) world champion in kata, respectively kumite. Until 1987, he participated in tournaments, and was also active as instructor. At present he is active as an instructor and referee.

Asai Shotokan Association International (ASAI)

Kousaku Yokota (1947- ), 8th "dan" is the Chief Instructor to the Asai Shotokan Association International, which has dojo in membership world-wide. He is a graduate of the Japan Karate Association's (JKA) instructors course and a personal student of the late Jun Sugano 9th dan, former JKA Vice Chairman. During his time with the JKA, Yokota also acted as an assistant instructor under Teruyuki Okazaki 10th dan at the International Shotokan Karate Federation's (ISKF) honbu dojo in Philadelphia, USA.
Yokota, resigned from the JKA and joined Tetsuhiko Asai 10th Dan and the Japan Karate Shotorenmei (JKS) as a JKS instructor, becoming an ardent student of Asai and in his latter years, a confidant. He resigned from the JKS after Asai's passing and took up the position of Technical Director of the World Japan Karate Alliance/Association (WJKA)
He left the WJKA in 2013 to form the Asai Shotokan Association International (ASAI) both to honour his own teacher; Tetsuhiko Asai, as well as offering him a vehicle by which he could better promalgate Asai's teachings world-wide (Asai-Ryu).
Asai-Ryu builds on the teachings of Funakoshi/Nakayama-ryu Shotokan karate but has added into the system, techniques which combine the strong, long distance fighting method of traditional JKA Shotokan with that of the softer and more fluid short distance fighting style of White Crane Kung fu. Asai believed that adding these techniques into traditional Shotokan training, along with the adjunctive kata of what is now known as Asai-ryu, helped cover the elements he believed were missing within the JKA system.
Yokota began his study of the martial arts in 1960 at the age of 13 when he joined the Judo club at the Hyogo Prefecture Police station. After watching it being practiced, he switched his martial arts training to karate and in 1964 he joined the JKA dojo in Kobe, Japan. He has also studied other karate and adjunctive styles such as Goju-Ryu and Kyokushinkai and Ki. His Kobudo weapons experience includes Nunchaku and Sai, which he trains with regularly to augment his karate training.
As a karateka, Yokota believes strongly in the budo/bujutsu concept of the art and therefore does not like the competition aspect that some karate-ka prefer. He has however, participated in tournaments at the behest of his instructors of the day and was champion of Hyogo Prefecture Championship in 1981 and 1982, and represented Hyogo prefecture at the JKA All Japan Championships in Tokyo. During his tournament career he fought against other Shotokan notables such as Masahiko Tanaka, Masao Kagawa and Yoshiharu Osaka. In order to better test his own karate skills and training further, he also trained for, and participated in full contact Kyokoshinkai competitions, which he feels helped validate his belief in the budo/bujutsu aspects of the art and led him to follow the teachings of Tetsuhiko Asai.
Kousaku Yokota who holds a post graduate masters degree, is the author of; Shotokan Myths and Shotokan Mysteries and co-author and translator of the Asai Kata Kyohon books 1,2 and 3.

International Karate Daigaku (IKD)

Frank Woon-a-tai (1950–), 9th dan, born in Guyana, and began training in 1964. He holds a B.A degree in Japanese Studies and History from the University of Toronto. A graduate of the JKA/ISKF Instructors course, he resigned from the ISKF In January 2011 where he held the positions of Chairman and Technical Director of ISKF Canada, and co-vice Chairman of the ISKF Technical Committee. He went on to establish the International Karate Daigaku (IKD); an organization of over 150 dojo(s) in 20 countries, in February 2011. The IKD currently operates in: North America, The Caribbean, South America, Europe and Asia, and is growing rapidly to the rest of the world.
Master Woon-A-Tai is Kancho (Founder) and Shuseki Shihan (Chief Instructor) of the IKD. Throughout his distinguished career, he served as first president of the Caribbean Karate College and as chief instructor of Jamaica from 1976 to 1980. He is a founder and chief instructor of JKA/ISKF Guyana, and the Guyana Karate College. He founded the Toronto JKA in 1981, and is presently Chairman and Chief Instructor of the Toronto Karate Daigaku, Ontario Karate College, IKD Ontario and IKD Canada.

World JKA Karate Association (WJKA)

The WJKA has no direct or indirect link or affiliation with the Japan Karate Association (JKA) or the Japan Karate Association World Federation (JKA/WF) or any other Japanese led Shotokan group either inside or outside Japan. It is a stand alone western organisation run by senior western Shotokan instructors headed by Mr Jan Knobel 8th Dan.
The aim of the World JKA Karate Association (started in 2000 as Alliance) is to propagate pure JKA Shotokan karate steeped in the teachings and traditional methodology of the Japan Karate Association of the 1960s through to the early 1980s, prior to the death of Masatoshi Nakayama, and as outlined in the Best Karate Series.
The concept of the WJKA was first put to an international board in 1994 in Brussels, by Sidoli Sensei and Knobel Sensei at the 2nd JKA Euro-Camp in 1996. The reasoning for this was the fact that both felt that karate-ka from both sides of the JKA (as prior to political divisions) should be able to train together and test together.
They proposed that a neutral and non-political 'friendship society' of JKA karate-ka should be created, where no individual association should be in control of any other, allowing autonomy and the freedom to fully develop. Between 1997 and 1999 there were several discussions between the European instructors. At the conclusion of these discussions all seemed keen to try and alma gate in friendship.The concept was not to create yet another JKA body, but to create a 'union' where everyone was in communication, affording everyone access to instruction, regardless of which association an instructor. A meeting was held in Germany in May 2000 between students of Mikami Sensei, Yahara Sensei, Asai Sensei and Ochi Sensei. All agreed on the need for such an organization in order that JKA karate could still be enjoyed by all, rather than one association being in total control of the mantle of JKA style karate. At the 12th (Asai faction) JKA World Karate Championships, held in Cardiff in July 2000, discussions took place between high grade non Japanese instructors. All agreed with the need to begin the international friendship, and to draw from the experiences of senior karate-ka from around the globe and at this point the WJKA was born.
In 2007 the WJKA came at its turning point. Sidoli sensei resigned and Jan Knobel, today's president, started to run the WJKA alone.In the same year Master Kousaku Yokota joined the WJKA as Technical Director, a position he held until his resignation in 2013 when he left to form Asai Shotokan Association International (ASAI).
The WJKA changed its name from Alliance into Association with a Shihankai as board. Today the Shihankai exists of 6 senior instructors namely, Jan Knobel 8th dan President, Don Owens 8th dan, Serge Trappeniers 7th dan, Kevin Thurlow 7th dan, Tadeusz Lebida 7th Dan and John Turnbull 7th dan.
Today WJKA teaches both JKA directions, Nakayama ryu and Asai ryu.

Indian Federation Of Shotokan Karate (IFSK)

The Indian Federation of Shotokan Karate (IFSK) was established in 1990 with its headquarters in Kolkata. Apart from holding regular seminars and courses on Traditional Shotokan Karate by top Indian and foreign instructors, the IFSK also encourage its members to attend tournaments, both under traditional and sports Karate rules. Till date the IFSK have hosted technical seminars under masters Nicholas Bernard Adamou (Nick) 8th Dan from England (5 times); John Van Weenan 7th Dan from England; Ali Aarsanjani 5th Dan from Iran (now in USA) and Gerry Breeze 8th Dan from England and Dr. David Hooper of Japan Karate Association. The IFSK has produced many champions in both domestic and international circuits, literally at all levels. IFSK has also mentored hundreds of Black Belts all over the country since 1993, some of them to-date went on to became highly qualified instructors within the organization and others have positioned themselves in highly professional field. The IFSK is an affiliated unit of Federation of British Shotokan Karate Union International of England & Shotokan Karate-do of United Nations headed by Shihan Gerry Breeze, 8th Dan as Technical Director of both the organizations.The organization is headed by Somnath Palchowdhury 5th DAN, FBSKUI, SKDUN & WKF. The other senior Technical Committee Members are Sona Ghosh, Srish Kumar De, Bijay Shaw, Niranjan Majumder, Madhusudan Laha, Nemai Dey, Manoj Saha, Sumit Kumar Maity, Sujit Dey and Puneet Bhattacharya.
In principle IFSK practice and promote the JKA style of Shotokan, incorporating the scientific principles of Traditional Karate as taught by Hidetaka Nishiyama.


The name "Shotokai" (see main article, Shōtōkai) is used as a synonym for the Shotokan ryu association Dai Nihon Karate-do Shotokai. It is the Shotokan Karate association established by Gichin Funakoshi originally in 1930.[6] Shotokai association is the keeper of master Funakoshi's Karate-do heritage.[citation needed]
Sometimes "Shotokai" is considered to be the method of karate taught by Shigeru Egami (1912–1981). Egami was the chief instructor of Shotokan Dojo 1976-1981.[6] Egami began training under Funakoshi in 1930, upon entering Waseda University, and helped to establish that university's karate club. Together with Funakoshi's son Gigo (Yoshitaka), Takeshi Shimoda, and Hironori Ohtsuka, Egami was among the group of Funakoshi's students who toured with him during his exhibitions of karate in Japan during the 1930s.[7] After Gigo's death in 1945, Egami was considered Funakoshi's successor.[8] During his early 40s, Egami began to radically rethink the effectiveness of some of his basic techniques. He writes:
During this questioning I understood one thing. Until that moment I had practiced karate with a fundamental illusion, I had confused hardness with strength and I made every effort to harden my body thinking that I would obtain more strength when hardening the body is equivalent to stopping the movement. This is a fundamental defect. I had then to start massaging and lightening the body I had struggled so many years to harden.[9]
Egami began experimenting with a more relaxed technique.
Following the Master's death in 1957, a rift developed among Funakoshi's students (among other issues, over whether to introduce tournaments). Shotokai and JKA became separate factions. To this day, the Shotokai method of Shotokan Karate is characterized by an emphasis on developing suppleness and relaxation while rejecting tournament competition.

Shotokan Karate of America (SKA)

Tsutomu Ohshima (1930–) began practicing karate at the Waseda University club in 1948, receiving instruction from Funakoshi and Egami among others, and became captain of the club in 1952. In 1955, he moved to USC to continue his studies, and led his first U.S. practice soon afterwards. In 1957, he started the first university karate club in the United States, at Caltech, and in 1959 founded the Southern California Karate Association.[10] As more dojos were opened throughout the U.S., the organization was renamed to Shotokan Karate of America (SKA) in 1969. SKA maintains its national headquarters in Los Angeles. Today, Ohshima is recognized as the chief instructor of many other SKA-affiliated Shotokan organizations worldwide. In 1957, Ohshima was awarded the rank of 5th dan by Master Funakoshi, the highest rank awarded, and by his choice, this is the rank he has retained, and the highest rank attainable in SKA.

Kenkojuku Karate Association (KKA)

It was founded in 1942 by Tomosaburo Okano, a student of both Gichin Funakoshi and his son Yoshitaka (Gigo) Funakoshi; it remains as one of the most traditional schools of Shotokan karate, with the Shotokai. The association's motto is "Inner Strength with Outward Humility". Since master Okano's passing the Kenkojuku Budokan Hombu Dojo is now run by his son Tomokatsu Okano, from the style's hombu dojo located in: 8-5, Minami-cho Hachioji-Shi Tokyo, 192 Japan.
Kenkojuku karate has just a few representatives within the United States, the Caribbean, India and Latin America.
Master Okano was on the panel of Masters of the Japan Karate-do Federation (JKF) and was declared a Living National Treasure of Japan before he died on July 19, 2003, at the age of 81.


  1. "Hidetaka Nishiyama: karate master". The Times (London). 2008-11-22. Retrieved 2008-12-21.
  2. American Amateur Karate Federation (AAKF)
  3. "Hidetaka Nishiyama: Biography". Retrieved 2008-12-21.
  4. Japan Shotokan Karate Association (JSKA)
  5. Mikio Yahara controversial legend
  6. The Official Homepage of Dai Nihon Karate-do Shotokai
  7. "Gichin Funakoshi, the father of karate". Retrieved 2008-12-21.
  8. Funakoshi, Gichin (1973). "Karate-do Kyohan", Kodansha International Ltd, Tokyo. ISBN 0-87011-190-6. See foreword by translator Tsutomu Ohshima.
  9. "Extract from "Histoire de Karaté-dô" by Kenji Tokitsu". Retrieved 2008-12-21.
  10. "Tsutomu Ohshima". Retrieved 2008-12-21.
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